Created By : Naaz Fatima

Reviewed By : Rajashekhar Valipishetty

Last Updated : May 08, 2023

The Air Density Calculator is a useful tool for determining the air density parameter based on temperature and pressure. To acquire the output air density quickly, enter the inputs as directed in the input sections and press the calculate button.

Air Type:
Choose a Calculation
Air pressure
Air temperature

What is the Density of Air?

The density of air informs us how much a specific amount of air weighs. The formula of air density is = mass of air/volume. The symbol for density of air is ρ and it is used to quantify the mass of air per unit volume. The majority of dry air is made up of gases like nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%), with the remaining 1% consisting of gases including carbon dioxide, neon, and helium. However, until water vapour develops, the air will no longer be dry.

Because air is a mixture of gases, its density will vary depending on the composition of the air. Because the majority of the components have comparable densities, they won't have a significant impact on the overall density. On the other hand, water vapour is an exception, and the higher the water vapour, the lower the air density.

In dry air, density at sea level is roughly 0.0765 lb/cu ft (1.225 kg/m³) at 59 °F (15 °C) and 14.7 psi (1013.25 hPa). The air density will change when the humidity and altitude change. According to the thumb rule, every 1000 feet of altitude shift results in a drop of 0.0022-0.0023 lb/cu ft (0.035-0.036 kg/m³).

How do you find the Density of Air?

To determine the air density at a specific area, you must be familiar with a number of weather characteristics, which are as follows. Air pressure is a barometric pressure that is measured in hPa.

Air Temperature: This is simply the temperature outside in degrees Celsius.

Humidity Relative: Relative Humidity, also known as Dew Point, is the temperature at which water vapour begins to condense.

Calculating the air density is a simple process. To calculate the density of the air, use the basic criteria stated below. To start, use the formula p₁ = 6.1078 * 10^[7.5*T /(T + 237.3)] to calculate the saturation vapour pressure at a particular temperature. where T is the temperature in degrees Celsius.

Then multiply the saturated vapour pressure by the relative humidity, i.e. pv = p1 * RH to get the actual vapour pressure. To get the dry air pressure, subtract the vapour pressure from the total air pressure using the equation pd = p - pv.

In the formula ρ = (pd / (Rd * T)) + (pv / (Rv * T)), substitute the known values.

  • Where, pd = pressure of dry air and it is measured in units of pa.
  • The Water Vapor Pressure is measured in pv units.
  • The Air Temperature in Kelvins is T.
  • The specific gas constant for dry air is Rd, which equals 287.058 J/(kg.K).
  • The specific gas constant for water vapour is Rv, which equals 461.495 J/(kg·K).

For more concepts check out to get quick answers by using this free tool.

Air Density Table

You may have come across the term "dry air" in the preceding sections. If you want to learn more about dry air, look no further and continue on to the next topic. Dry air is defined as air with low relative humidity and, as a result, a low dew point.

To gain a better understanding of how temperature and pressure affect the density of air. As the air is heated, the density of the air decreases. Check out the air density table for dry air below to see how air changes with height.

[ft (m)]
[°F (°C)]
[psi (hPa)]
Air density
[lb / cu ft (kg / m³)]
sea level 59 (15) 14.7 (1013.25) 0.077 (1.23)
2 000 (610) 51.9 (11.1) 13.7 (941.7) 0.072 (1.16)
4 000 (1219) 44.7 (7.1) 12.7 (873.3) 0.068 (1.09)
6 000 (1829) 37.6 (3.1) 11.7 (808.2) 0.064 (1.02)
8 000 (2438) 30.5 (-0.8) 10.8 (746.2) 0.06 (0.95)
10 000 (3048) 23.3 (-4.8) 10 (687.3) 0.056 (0.9)
12 000 (3658) 16.2 (-8.8) 9.2 (631.6) 0.052 (0.84)
14 000 (4267) 9.1 (-12.8) 8.4 (579) 0.048 (0.77)
16 000 (4877) 1.9 (-16.7) 7.7 (530.9) 0.045 (0.72)

Standard Air Density

Because the temperature and air density differ from place to place, normal air conditions are required. Look over the sections below to learn about many typical reference pressures p0 and temperatures T0.

According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC): Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP), p₀ = 10⁵ Pa, T = 0 °C;

  • Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): ISO 10780, p₀ = 1 atm, T = 0 °C;
  • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO): International Standard Atmosphere (ISA), p₀ = 1 atm, T = 15 °C
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Normal Temperature and Pressure (NTP), p₀ = 1 atm, T = 20 °C
  • International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry: Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure (SATP), p₀ = 10⁵ Pa, T = 25 °C

SI and English Units of Air Density

Kilogram Per Cubic Meter (Kg/m3) is the SI unit for density. However, in some situations, it is preferable to use alternative units, such as

  • gram per cubic centimeter (g /c m³), 1 g/cm³ = 0.001 kg / m³
  • kilogram per liter (kg / L), 1 kg/L = 1000 kg / m³
  • gram per milliliter (g / mL), 1 g/mL = 1000 kg / m³

Choose the units based on the situation. The following are the Imperial Units for Air Density.

  • pound per cubic feet (lb / cu ft)
  • pound per cubic yard (lb / cu yd), 1 lb / cu yd ≈ 0.037 lb / cu ft
  • ounce per cubic inch (oz / cu in), 1 oz / cu in = 108 lb / cu ft
  • pound per gallon (US) (lb / US gal), 1 lb / US gal ≈ 7.48 lb / cu ft.

Relative Humidity

The ratio of the partial pressure of water vapour to the equilibrium vapour pressure of water at a given temperature is known as relative humidity. p_total = p_N₂ + p_O₂ + p_Ar + p_H₂O + ...The relative humidity scale runs from 0% to 100%, with 0% denoting dry air and 100% denoting air totally saturated with water vapour.

Air Pressure

Air pressure is a physical property of gas that indicates its strength when acting on its surroundings. Molecules of gas will be in constant motion and have a velocity that is dependent on thermal energy, according to the Kinetic Theory of Gases. Particles collide and strike the container's walls, exerting a small force. The overall force becomes substantial and measurable when the number of contained molecules reaches the magnitude of Avogadro's Number -10^23, which is the pressure.

Dew Point

Dew Point is a physical parameter that refers to atmospheric humidity. It's the temperature at which water vapour in the atmosphere reaches saturation. The formula DP = 243.12 * α / (17.62 - α) can be used to calculate the Due Point, which is dependent on the relative humidity RH and temperature T. α = ln(RH/100) + 17.62 * T / (243.12 + T)

FAQs on Air Density Calculator

1. How can you find out how air density is?

Finding the air density is a simple process. The pressure imposed by the air must be divided into two partial pressures: dry air and water vapour. You can get the desired parameter by combining these two values.

2. Which place has the densest air?

The density of air in a column of air between two heights is measured by the difference in barometric pressure between observation locations at various elevations.

3. What does it mean to have a high air density?

The density of air informs us how much a given amount of air weighs.

4. What factors affect air density?

Temperature, pressure, and the amount of water vapour in the air all affect air density.